रविन्द्र भवन के ठीक पास एक गैलरी हैं जो अभी इसी माह तैयार हुई है ,और मुख्य रोड पर लिखा हैं ” opinion poll square ” या ” जनमत कौल चौराहा ” इसी बोर्ड में उनसब को सैल्यूट किया गया है जिन्होंने गोअन पहचान को बनाये रखने के लिए जनमत संग्रह में वोट देकर अलग रहने का निर्णय किया .( जनमत से निर्णय लिया जाना था कि गोवा का विलय ‘ मर्जर ‘ महाराष्ट्र मे होगा या अपनी संस्कृति और परंपरागत पहचान के साथ सेपरेट केन्द्र शासित रहेगा .
Roqui santan के नेतृत्व मे मर्जर के खिलाफ आंदोलन हुआ ,संतन को गोवा डेमोक्रेसी का पितामह भी कहा जाता है।
मर्जर के खिलाफ आंदोलन करने वाले और लगातार गोअन पहचान के लिए काम करने वाले व्यक्तियों की तस्वीर और परिचय के साथ करीब 40 पोट्रेट्स के पैनल लगे हैं .
जिनमे प्रमुख हैं डा. जेके सिक्युरिया ,विक्टोरिया फर्नाडीज,डॉ.
लुइस प्रोटो बारबोसा ,शबु देसाई,शंकर भंडारी, उदय भेंबरे,पुरषोत्तम काकोडकर, रविन्द्र केलकर,,नर्सिलवा दामोदर नायक ,उर्मिडा सीमा लिटो ,अनन्त नर्सिलवा बाबू नायक ,टियोलोयो पेरेसिया ,एनियो विमोन,डॉ. मार्टिडो
फैटडो, एनियो पिमेंटा ,टेटोनियो पेरेरा ,पुरषोतम काकोडकर आदि .
जवाहर लाल नेहरू ने 1963 में गोवा की जनता से वायदा किया था कि दस साल तक वह केंद्र शाशित रहेगा उसके बाद गोवा की जनता निर्णय करेगी की वह क्या चाहती है .यानी स्वतन्त्र राज्य के रूप में या महाराष्ट्र के साथ विलय चाहती है .
कहानी बहुत लंबी है ,फिलहाल इतना कि महाराष्ट्र गोमांतक पार्टी (Mgm) ने मर्जर का समर्थन किया और Dr. Jack de Sequeira के नेतृत्व में ( Ugp ) यूनाइटेड गोअन पार्टी ने मर्जर के खिलाफ अभियान किया ,
गुलाब का फूल समर्थन में और दो पत्ती विरोध में वोट किया गया ,खूब अभियान हुआ , मोटे तौर पर हिन्दू मर्जर के साथ थे और कैथोलिक तथा कोकड़ी बोलने वाले मर्जर का विरोध कर रहे थे .
इस बीच जवाहर लाल नेहरु और लाल बहादुर शास्त्री जी का निधन हो गया ,इनकी सबकी निर्णायक भूमिका के साथ इंदिरा गांधी प्रधान मन्त्री बनी तब इसे अंतिम रुप दिया गया.
भारत के चुनाव आयुक्त खुद जनमत संग्रह की देख रेख करने दिल्ली से गोवा आये थे .
54.20 फीसदी लोगो ने मर्जर के खिलाफ और 43.50 फीसदी लोगों ने महाराष्ट्र के साथ रहने के लिये वोट किया.
जिन लोगों ने गोवा की पहचान और संस्कृति को बनाये रखने के लिये आंदोलन किया उनके प्रति कृतज्ञता प्रगट करने के लिए इस गैलरी का निर्माण किया गया हैं ।
डा. लाखन सिंह गोवा 6.02.2018
डिटेल में जानकारी अँग्रेजी में सलग्न है .
The Goa Opinion Poll was a referendum held in the state of Goa, India, on 16 January 1967, to decide the future of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu within the Indian Union. Although popularly called an opinion poll, it was in fact, a referendum, as the results of the poll were binding on the government of India. The referendum offered the people of Goa a choice between continuing as a union territoryor merging with the state of Maharashtra. It is the only referendum to have been held in independent India
The people of Goavoted against the merger and Goa continued to be a union territory. Subsequently, in 1987, Goa became a full-fledged state within the Indian Union.
India gained its independence from the British in 1947. Goa was the largest part of the Portuguese possession in India, the other territories being small enclaves. In 1961, India incorporated these territories after a military invasion. At the time of Goa’s accession into India, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had promised that Goa would retain its distinct identity. Even prior to the annexation of Goa, Nehru had promised that the people of Goa would be consulted on any decision about their territory.
In the meantime, the provinces of India had been reorganized on linguistic basis. This happened due to the intense political movements for language-based states as well as a need to effectively administer a diverse country. Among the prominent movements for linguistic states was the Samyukta Maharashtra movement. In 1960, The state of Bombay was partitioned into two new states: the state of Maharashtra, which encompassed the Marathi speaking areas; and Gujarat where Gujarati was predominant
One of the main reasons leading to the referendum was the diglossic situation among the people of Goa
. Konkani was the main language spoken in Goa. Apart from this, many Konkani people were bilingual; they spoke both Marathi and Konkani. Among the Hindus in Goa, Marathi occupied a higher status and their culture was similar to the culture of the neighbouring state. Konkani was spoken at home and in the bazaars, but religious literature, ceremonies etc.
were in Marathi. Some people in Goa considered Konkani to be a dialect of Marathi and hence by reason, considered all Goans to be of Marathi ethnicity. As a result, there were demands from various sections in Goa as well as from Maharashtra to merge Goa into Maharashtra.
of Daman and Diu were Gujarati-speaking areas and bordered the new state of Gujarat.
Since Goa was an acquired territory, India faced opposition from America in the UN, Goa was not given immediate statehood but was incorporated as a Union Territory unlike other Union Territories, which were directly administered by the central government in New Delhi. As Goans did not have its own state legislature, fearing for the identity of Goa Shri.Roqui Santan an influential member of the native Velliapura royal family
but was a reluctant royal organised 3 days satygraha for early democracy in Goa, immediately Goa’s first polls were held on 9 December 1963 even though Goa did not belong to India and for this Shri RoquiSantan is popularly know as ‘Father of Goan Democracy’
. It was only after the Luso-Indo treaty that Goa became a part of India. That too the treaty was not in consultations with the Goans, the indigenous people.
After the announcement of the first election the two main parties were formed by two Goan industrialists
from no where, UGPand MGP, with two opposing ideologies. The Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (Pro-Maharashtra Goan Party) wanted to merge the state of Goa into the newly formed state of Maharashtra.
Roqui Santan campaigned against Goa’s merger with Maharashtra and was the front leader. The United Goans Partywanted to retain independent statehood for the former Portuguese enclaves
The MGP had the support of the lower castes among Goa’s Hindus, whereas the UGP was dominated by Catholics with some support from upper-caste Hindus
RoquiSantan ‘Father of Goan Democracy’.
Of the 30 seats in the Goa, Daman and Diuassembly, 28 belonged to Goa, and one each to Daman and Diu. MGP formed the government, having secured 16 seats strengthening the merger movement while UGP secured 12 seats and occupied opposition benches. The assembly of Goa, Daman and Diu convened on 9 January 1964
Prime minister Jawahar Lal Nehru had promised in 1963 that Goa would remain a Union Territory for ten years after which the future of Goa would be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of Goa. The MGP was not prepared to wait for that long.
The MGP and politicians in Maharashtra were elated at the victory and touted it as a mandate that the majority of Goans were in favour of merger.
Dayanand Bandodkar, the leader of MGP and the first Chief Minister of Goa, proclaimed that by voting the MGP into power, the people of Goa had, in effect, voted in favour of merger with Maharashtra. According to them, passing a bill in the state legislature was all that was needed. Passing a bill in the assembly would be easy for the MGP as they had a simple majority.
In a representative democracy like India, the elected representatives take the decisions. It is in very rare conditions that the onus of decision making is put directly on the public.
The United Goans Party, headed by Dr. Jack de Sequeira, also knew that if the issue was put to vote in the state assembly, merger was a foregone conclusion. Merging Goa into another state was a monumental decision.
Also the very future of the state and the identity of the Goan people was at stake
So they pressed for a people’s referendum instead of a vote among the representatives; as was the norm in a Parliamentary democracy like India.
Dr.Sequeira visited New Delhi along with RoquiSantan and his other MLAs and impressed Nehru about the need of an opinion poll on this matter. However he died before Parliament could take this decision and Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded him as Prime Minister. A delegation consisting of MGP MLAs and Maharashtra’s leaders went to New Delhi to convince him that a vote on the merger should be conducted in the Goa Assembly.
Dr.Sequeira, along with his deligation, went to Bangalore where an AICC session was being held and met Shastri. They opposed the move to get the merger voted in the Assembly and impressed on Shastri and Kamraj, the need to put this question before the people of Goa themselves instead of a vote in the Assembly. However Shastri died in 1966 in Tashkent and this decision was now left to the new Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
Again Dr. Sequeira along with RoquiSantan and his other MLAs met Indira Gandhi and submitted a memorandum that such a monumental decision affecting the future of the State could not be left to legislators alone, but should be put before the people to decide. Purushottam Kakodkar, the president of the Goa unit of the Congress Party, used his personal equations with the Nehru family to lobby hard for a referendum with the central leadership. According to one source, he reportedly “almost lost his sanity”trying to do so.
The referendum could be conducted via a signature campaign or by secret ballot. UGP also demanded that expatriate Goans staying in other parts of India or the world, should be allowed to vote by postal ballot. However this request was denied.
The President of India gave his assent to the Goa, Daman and Diu (Opinion Poll) Act on 16 December 1966 after it was passed in both houses of the parliament. 16 January 1967 was chosen as the date for the referendum.
Now that the referendum would be conducted, the anti-merger faction feared that Bandodkar may use the state’s administrative and law-enforcement machinery to browbeat the anti-mergerists into submission. The UGP demanded that the MGP government resign so that the referendum could be conducte in a free-and-fair atmosphere. The central government conceded and on 3 December 1966, tUhe MGP government resigned .Y
ChoiceVotes%Separate territory172,191/U 54.20 % //Merger138,170 / 43.50% Total317,633100Registered voters/turnout388,43281.77